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(音诗画欣赏)长恨歌

2006-10-27 10:42:23|  分类: 音画收藏 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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长 恨 歌

(唐)白居易  编辑:真水无香

 

(背景音乐:霓裳羽衣曲)

 

 

 

汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。 
杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。

 

 

天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。 
回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色

 

 

春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。 
侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽时。

 

 

云鬓花颜金步摇,

芙蓉帐暖度春宵。

 

 

春宵苦短日高起,

从此君王不早朝。

 

 

承欢侍宴无闲暇,

春从春游夜专夜。

 

 

后宫佳丽三千人,

三千宠爱在一身。

 

 

金屋妆成娇侍夜

 

 

玉楼宴罢醉和春

 

 

姊妹弟兄皆列土,

可怜光彩生门户。

 

 

遂令天下父母心,

不重生男重生女。

 

 

骊宫高处入青云,

仙乐风飘处处闻。

 

 

缓歌谩舞凝丝竹,

尽日君王看不足。

 

 

渔阳鼙鼓动地来,

惊破霓裳羽衣曲。

 

 

九重城阙烟尘生,千乘万骑西南行。 
翠华摇摇行复止,西出都门百余里。

 

 

六军不发无奈何,

宛转蛾眉马前死。

 

 

花钿委地无人收,

翠翘金雀玉搔头。

 

 

君王掩面救不得,

回看血泪相和流。

 

 

黄埃散漫风萧索,云栈萦纡登剑阁。 
峨嵋山下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄。

 

 

蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主朝朝暮暮情。 
行宫见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃肠断声。

 

 

天旋地转回龙驭,到此踌躇不能去。 
马嵬坡下泥土中,不见玉颜空死处。

 

 

君臣相顾尽沾衣,

东望都门信马归。

 

 

归来池苑皆依旧,

太液芙蓉未央柳。

 

 

 

芙蓉如面柳如眉,

对此如何不泪垂。

 

 

春风桃李花开日,秋雨梧桐叶落时。 
西宫南内多秋草,落叶满阶红不扫。

 

 

梨园子弟白发新,

椒房阿监青娥老。

 

 

夕殿萤飞思悄然,孤灯挑尽未成眠。 
迟迟钟鼓初长夜,耿耿星河欲曙天。

 

 

鸳鸯瓦冷霜华重,翡翠衾寒谁与共? 
悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。

 

 

临邛道士鸿都客,

能以精诚致魂魄。

 

 

为感君王辗转思,

遂教方士殷勤觅。

 

 

排空驭气奔如电,

升天入地求之遍。

 

 

上穷碧落下黄泉,

两处茫茫皆不见。

 

 

忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥缈间。 
楼阁玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。 
中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。

 

 

金阙西厢叩玉扃,转教小玉报双成。 
闻道汉家天子使,九华帐里梦魂惊。

 

 

揽衣推枕起徘徊,珠箔银屏迤逦开。 
云鬓半偏新睡觉,花冠不整下堂来。 
风吹仙袂飘飘举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。 
玉容寂寞泪阑干,梨花一枝春带雨。

 

 

含情凝睇谢君王,一别音容两渺茫。 
昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。 
回头下望人寰处,不见长安见尘雾。 
唯将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。

 

 

钗留一股合一扇,钗擘黄金合分钿。 
但教心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。 
临别殷勤重寄词,词中有誓两心知。

 

 

七月七日长生殿,

夜半无人私语时。

 

 

在天愿作比翼鸟,

在地愿为连理枝。

 

 

天长地久有时尽,

此恨绵绵无绝期。

 

 

白居易《长恨歌

汉皇重色思倾国,御宇多年求不得。 
杨家有女初长成,养在深闺人未识。 
天生丽质难自弃,一朝选在君王侧。 
回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。 
春寒赐浴华清池,温泉水滑洗凝脂。 
侍儿扶起娇无力,始是新承恩泽时。 
云鬓花颜金步摇,芙蓉帐暖度春宵。 
春宵苦短日高起,从此君王不早朝。 
承欢侍宴无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜。 
后宫佳丽三千人,三千宠爱在一身。 
金屋妆成娇侍夜,玉楼宴罢醉和春。 
姊妹弟兄皆列土,可怜光彩生门户。 
遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女。 
骊宫高处入青云,仙乐风飘处处闻。 
缓歌谩舞凝丝竹,尽日君王看不足。 
渔阳鼙鼓动地来,惊破霓裳羽衣曲。 
九重城阙烟尘生,千乘万骑西南行。 
翠华摇摇行复止,西出都门百余里。 
六军不发无奈何,宛转蛾眉马前死。 
花钿委地无人收,翠翘金雀玉搔头。 
君王掩面救不得,回看血泪相和流。 
黄埃散漫风萧索,云栈萦纡登剑阁。 
峨嵋山下少人行,旌旗无光日色薄。 
蜀江水碧蜀山青,圣主朝朝暮暮情。 
行宫见月伤心色,夜雨闻铃肠断声。 
天旋地转回龙驭,到此踌躇不能去。 
马嵬坡下泥土中,不见玉颜空死处。 
君臣相顾尽沾衣,东望都门信马归。 
归来池苑皆依旧,太液芙蓉未央柳。 
芙蓉如面柳如眉,对此如何不泪垂。 
春风桃李花开日,秋雨梧桐叶落时。 
西宫南内多秋草,落叶满阶红不扫。 
梨园弟子白发新,椒房阿监青娥老。 
夕殿萤飞思悄然,孤灯挑尽未成眠。 
迟迟钟鼓初长夜,耿耿星河欲曙天。 
鸳鸯瓦冷霜华重,翡翠衾寒谁与共。 
悠悠生死别经年,魂魄不曾来入梦。 
临邛道士鸿都客,能以精诚致魂魄。 
为感君王辗转思,遂教方士殷勤觅。 
排空驭气奔如电,升天入地求之遍。 
上穷碧落下黄泉,两处茫茫皆不见。 
忽闻海上有仙山,山在虚无缥渺间。 
楼阁玲珑五云起,其中绰约多仙子。 
中有一人字太真,雪肤花貌参差是。 
金阙西厢叩玉扃,转教小玉报双成。 
闻道汉家天子使,九华帐里梦魂惊。 
揽衣推枕起徘徊,珠箔银屏迤逦开。 
云鬓半偏新睡觉,花冠不整下堂来。 
风吹仙袂飘飘举,犹似霓裳羽衣舞。 
玉容寂寞泪阑干,梨花一枝春带雨。 
含情凝睇谢君王,一别音容两渺茫。 
昭阳殿里恩爱绝,蓬莱宫中日月长。 
回头下望人寰处,不见长安见尘雾。 
惟将旧物表深情,钿合金钗寄将去。 
钗留一股合一扇,钗擘黄金合分钿。 
但教心似金钿坚,天上人间会相见。 
临别殷勤重寄词,词中有誓两心知。 
七月七日长生殿,夜半无人私语时。 
在天愿作比翼鸟,在地愿为连理枝。 
天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵无绝期。

 

The Everlasting Regret

The beauty-loving monarch longed year after year
To find a beautiful lady without peer.
A maiden of the Yang to womanhood just grown,
In inner chambers bred, to the world was unknown.
Endowed with natural beauty too hard to hide,
One day she stood selected for the monarch's side.
Turning her head, she smiled so sweet and full of grace
That she outshone in six palaces the fairest face.
She bathed in glassy water of warm-fountain pool,
Which laved and smoothed her creamy skin when spring was cool.
Upborne by her attendants, she rose too faint to move,
And this was when she first received the monarch's love.
Flowerlike face and cloudlike hair, golden-headdressed,
In lotus-flower curtain she spent the night blessed.
She slept till sun rose high, for the blessed night was short;
From then on the monarch held no longer morning court.
In revels as in feasts she shared her lord's delight,
His companion on trips and his mistress at night.
In inner palace dwelt three thousand ladies fair;
On her alone was lavished royal love and care.
Her beauty served the night when dressed in Golden Bower
Or drunk with wine and spring at banquet in Jade Tower.
All her sisters and brothers received rank and fieft
And honours showered on her household, to the grief
Of the fathers and mothers who'd rather give birth
To a fair maiden than any sone on earth.
The lofty palace towered high into blue cloud,
With wind-borne music so divine the air was loud.
Seeing slow dance and hearing fluted or stringed song,
The emperor was never tired the whole day long.

But rebels beat their war drums, making the earth quake
And "Song of Rainbow Skirt and Coat of Feathers" break.
A cloud of dust was raised o'er city walls nine-fold;
Thousands of chariots and horsemen southwestward rolled.
Imperial flags moved slowly now and halted then,
And thirty miles from Western Gate they stopped again.
Six armies would not march - what could be done? - with speed
Until the Lady Yang was killed before the steed.
None would pick up her hairpin fallen to the ground
Or golden bird and comb with which her head was crowned.
The monarch could not save her and hid his face in fear;
Turning his head, he saw her blood mix with his tear.
The yellow dust spread wide, the wind blew desolate;
A serpentine plank path led to cloud-capped Sword Gate.
Below the Eyebrow Mountains wayfarers were few;
In fading sunlight royal standards lost their hue.
On western waters blue and western mountains green
The monarch's heart was daily gnawed by sorrow keen.
The moon viewed from his tent shed a soul-searing light;
The bells heard in night rain made a heart-rending sound.

Suddenly turned the tide. Returning from his flight,
The monarch could not tear himself away from the ground
Where 'mid the clods beneath the slope he couldn't forget
The fair-faced Lady Yang, who was unfairly slain.
He looked at ministers, with tears his robe was wet;
They rode east to the capital, but with loose rein.
Back, he found her pond and garden in the old place,
With lotus in the lake and willows by the hall.
Willow leaves like her brows and lotus like her face;
At the sight of all these, how could his tears not fall
Or when in vernal breeze were peach and plum full-blown
Or when in autumn rain parasol leaves were shed?
In western as in southern court was grass o'ergrown;
With fallen leaves unswept the marble steps turned red.
Actors, although still young, began to have hair grey;
Eunuchs and waiting maids looked old in palace deep.
Fireflies flitting the hall, mutely he pined away;
The lonely lampwick burned out; still he could not sleep.
Slowly beat drums and rang bells; night began to grow long;
Bright shone the Milky Way; daybreak seemed to come late.
The lovebird tiles grew chilly with hoar frost so strong,
And his kingfisher quilt was cold, not shared by a mate.
One long, long year the dead and the living were parted;
Her soul came not in dreams to see the brokenhearted.

A Taoist sorcerer came to the palace door,
Skilled to summon the spirit from the other shore.
Moved by the monarch's yearning for the departed fair,
He was ordered to seek for her everywhere.
Borne on the air, like flash of lightning he flew;
In heaven and on earth he searched through and through.
Up to the azure vault and down to deepest place,
Nor above nor below could he e'er find her trace.
He learned that on the sea where fairy mountains proud
That now appeared, now disappeared amid the cloud
Of rainbow colours where rose magnificent bowers
And dwelt so many fairies as graceful as flowers.
Among them was a queen whose name was Ever True;
Her snow-white skin and sweet face might afford a clue.
Knocking at western gate of palace hall, he bade
The porter fair to inform the queen's waiting maid.
When she heard there came the monarch's embassy,
The queen was startled out of dreams in her canopy.
Pushing aside the pillow, she rose and got dressed,
Passing through silver screen and pearl shade to meet the guest.
Her cloudlike hair awry, not full awake at all,
Her flowery cap slanted, she came into the hall.
The wind blew up her fairy sleeves and made them float
As if she danced the "Rainbow Skirt and Feathered Coat."
Her jade-white face crisscrossed with tears in lonely world
Like a spray of pear blossoms in spring rain impearled.
She bade him thank her lord, lovesick and brokenhearted;
They knew nothing of each other after they parted.
Love and happiness long ended within palace walls;
Days and months appeared long in the fairyland halls.
Turning her head and fixing on the earth her gaze,
She saw no capital 'mid clouds of dust and haze.
To show her love was deep, she took out keepsakes old
For him to carry back, hairpin and case of gold.
Keeping one side of the case and one wing of the pin,
She sent to her dear lord the other half of the twin.
"If our two hearts as firm as the gold should remain,
In heaven or on earth we'll sometime meet again."
At parting she confided to the messenger
A secret vow known only to her lord and her.
On seventh day of seventh moon when none was near,
At midnight in Long Life Hall he whispered in her ear,
"On high, we'd be two lovebirds flying wing to wing;
On earth, two trees with branches twined from spring to spring."
The boundless sky and endless earth may pass away,
But this vow unfulfilled will be regretted for aye.

 

 

 

    这首诗作于唐宪宗元和元年(公元806年),时作者35岁,任周至县尉。关于这首诗的写作缘起,据白居易的朋友陈鸿说,他与白居易、王质夫三人于元和元年十月到仙游寺游玩。偶然间谈到了唐明皇与杨贵妃的这段悲剧故事,大家都很感叹。于是王质夫就请白居易写一首长诗,以传后世。因为长诗的最后两句是“天长地久有时尽,此恨绵绵无绝期”,所以他们就称这首诗叫《长恨歌》。

  《长恨歌》共分三大段,从“汉皇重色思倾国”至“惊破《霓裳羽衣曲》”共三十二句为第一段,写唐明皇和杨贵妃的爱情生活、爱情效果,以及由此导致的荒政乱国和安史之乱的爆发。其中开头八句写杨贵妃的美貌和被唐明皇所求得。明是唐皇而诗中却说“汉皇”,这是唐朝人由写古题乐府留下来的习惯。倾国:指倾国倾城的美女。御宇:指作皇帝,统治天下。从“春寒赐浴华清池”到“不重生男重生女”的十八句,写杨贵妃的受宠和由此形成的杨氏家族的豪贵。华清池:在今西安市东临潼县南的骊山上,上有皇帝的行宫,以温泉闻名。凝脂:比喻人的皮肤洁白光润。步摇:古代妇女的一种头饰。“春宵苦短日高起,从此君王不早朝”,写唐明皇的迷恋声色,荒废政事。“承欢侍宴无闲暇,春从春游夜专夜。后宫佳丽三千人,三千宠爱在一身。”写杨贵妃被宠的程度,简直是形影不离。接着作者又用汉武帝宠爱陈阿娇,要为阿娇造一座金屋子的典故来比喻了他们之间的关系。“姊妹兄弟皆列土,可怜光彩生门户。遂令天下父母心,不重生男重生女”。一人得道,鸡犬升天,杨贵妃一人受宠,杨氏族门立刻权势逼人。哥哥杨国忠当了宰相,几个姊妹都被封为大国夫人,争权斗富,不可一世。杜甫的《丽人行》就是写的这桩事。皇帝后妃也是人,也有情欲,这点与平民没有区别;但是皇帝手中有无尚的权威,他的情欲往往和这种无尚权威的运用密不可分。这就使他们的爱情效果与平民大不相同了。好色并不是了不起的罪过,但由好色而导致滥加封赏,使坏人窃弄权柄,紊乱朝纲,这就离亡国灭家不远了。所以我们评论帝王的爱情一定不要离开他们生活的具体内容及其社会效果。“骊宫高处入青云,仙乐风飘处处闻。缓歌慢舞凝丝竹,尽日君王看不足。”这四句又和前面的“从此君王不早朝”相呼应,进一步描写唐明皇的迷恋声色,荒政误国。唐朝统治者这种豪华奢侈的生活,是建立在残酷地掠夺劳动人民,使劳动人民陷于极度贫困的基础之上的。杜甫在《自京赴奉先咏怀五百字》中描写了一段唐明皇与杨贵妃在骊山上的享乐生活后,接着说:“彤庭所分帛,本自寒女出。鞭挞其夫家,聚敛贡城阙。”又说:“朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨。荣枯咫尺异,惆伥难再述。”正是因为统治集团如此昏庸腐朽,阶级矛盾又如此尖锐,所以当安禄山这个大野心家一旦发起叛乱,唐王朝这座炫人眼目的金字塔立刻就倾倒崩溃了。“渔阳鼙鼓动地来,惊破《霓裳羽衣曲》”,正是形象地说明了这一过程。渔阳:郡名,郡治在今天津蓟县。这一带有时称渔阳郡,有时又称范阳郡。安禄山当时任范阳、平卢、河东三镇节度使,大本营就在渔阳。鼓:军中使用的乐器。渔阳鼙鼓,即指安禄山率领的造反军队;安禄山发动叛乱在唐玄宗天宝十四年(公元755年)十一月。霓裳羽衣曲:舞曲名,开元中来自西凉。据说唐明皇曾亲自对它进行过加工润色,并为之制作歌辞。杨贵妃进宫后,善为此舞。

  从“九重城阙烟尘生”到“魂魄不曾来入梦”共四十二句为第二段,写马驿兵变,杨贵妃被杀,以及从此以后唐明皇对杨贵妃的朝思暮想,深情不移。其中开头十句讲马嵬驿兵变。九重城阙:指首都。皇帝的宫庭有九道门,故称皇宫曰九重。烟尘:指敌警。千乘万骑西南行:指唐明皇等离长安往四川逃跑,事在天宝十五年(公元756年)六月。翠华:指皇帝的仪仗。西出都门百余里,其地即马嵬驿,在今陕西兴平西。六军:古称天子的军队,这里指唐明皇的卫队。不发:不再继续前进,这里即指兵变。当时乱兵先杀了杨国忠及杨贵妃的两个姊妹,又逼着唐明皇将杨贵妃赐死。花、翠翘、金雀钗、玉搔头:都是杨贵妃头上的饰物。“黄埃散漫风萧索”以下八句写唐明皇在前往成都的路上以及在成都的日子里对杨贵妃的思念。云:山中的空中通道。剑阁:即剑门关,古时陕西四川间的险要关塞,在今四川剑阁县东北。峨嵋山:在今四川峨嵋县西南,不在由陕西入四川的路上,这里是诗人为强调川陕间山路艰难而漫加堆砌。李白《蜀道难》中有所谓“西当太白有鸟道,可以横绝峨嵋巅。”同误。“天旋地转回龙驭”以下四句写唐军收复长安后,唐明皇由成都回京再次经过马嵬驿时的见今思昔,对景伤情。天旋地转:指形势变化,唐军收复两京。事在唐肃宗至德二年(公元757年)九月、十月。龙:指唐明皇的车驾。不见玉颜空死处,只有空坟,而尸体不见了。从此故事增入神话色彩,当时有种传说,说杨贵妃已经“尸解”成仙而去。“君臣相顾泪沾衣”以下二十句写唐明皇回京后的见物思人,悲不欲生。信马归:听凭马自己行走,极言人心无绪的样子。太液:大明宫内的池水名。未央:汉代皇帝居住的宫殿名,这里借指唐代的大明宫。西宫:太极宫,唐人称之为“西宫”或“西内”。南内:兴庆宫。唐人称大明宫、太极宫、兴庆宫为三大内。大明宫是当时的皇帝唐肃宗居住的地方。已经退位的唐明皇回京后先后曾被安置在太极宫和兴庆宫居住。梨园弟子:指昔日曾经侍奉过唐明皇的宫廷歌舞班子,据说唐明皇曾亲自教过他们排练。椒房:后妃居住的宫室,以花椒和泥涂壁,一取其香,二取其多子。阿监:太监。青娥:指宫女。以上两句分承唐明皇与杨贵妃,是说昔日曾经侍应过他们的人现在都已经老了。鸳鸯瓦:房顶上俯仰相扣的屋瓦。翡翠衾:用翡翠羽毛装饰的被子。以上层层铺陈,说明唐明皇无时无刻不在思念,无物无景不在勾起他对杨贵妃的怀恋。

 

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